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Distillers Grains: Production, Properties, and Utilization [KeShun Liu, Kurt A. Rosentrater] on abinvolsandpu.ga *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In recent years.
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Submit a Manuscript. Guide to Authors. Therefore, although substitution of wheat distiller grain for roughage in finishing diets may increase the incidence of ruminal acidosis, this outcome does not appear to adversely impact the performance of the cattle.

Ethanol Production Profits: The Risk from Lower Prices of Distillers Grains

Such a practice could provide an alternative to roughage source to feedlot producers when the roughage is in shortage or provide a potential saving from reducing acres to roughage production. Carcass traits and beef quality can be significantly impacted by changing diet formulation and quality of feed ingredients. However, several studies showed that the beef quality from cattle fed wheat distiller grain is comparable with that produced using the diets without wheat distiller grain incorporation.

Yang et al. Actually, substituting wheat distiller grain for barley silage in diets fed to growing beef cattle improved meat fatty acid profiles by increasing content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid in beef [ 28 ].

These results suggest that replacement of barley silage with wheat distiller grain cause favourable changes in the fatty acid profile of meat such as omega-3 fatty acids in beef. Similarly, Walter et al. The co-products from brewing or wet milling corn processing that are similar to the distiller grain from ethanol plant, has been historically fed to dairy cattle as protein supplement, especially as ruminal undegradable protein source.

However, with expansion of ethanol production and consequently increasing distiller grain availability, feeding wheat distiller grain to dairy cattle has been spread recently not only as protein source but also as energy or fibre sources [ 31 ]. In fact, high-producing dairy cows are often at risk of subacute rumen acidosis, a common digestive disorder usually caused by feeding a diet containing highly fermentable carbohydrates with insufficient effective fibre to maintain rumen health [ 32 ]. Because the distiller grain contain low starch which is highly fermentable in the rumen, and high digestible fibre as well as relative high fat, it was suggested that feeding distiller grain in dairy cow diets could be potentially reduce the incidence of rumen acidosis while maintain milk production.

Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Numbers of studies have been conducted to assess wheat distiller grain as a fibre and energy source to partly replace grain, or roughage or both. Penner et al. Zhang et al.

Feeding wheat distiller grain as a partial replacement of barley silage can improve dairy cow production, but, it may decrease chewing time, ruminal pH and milk fat concentration [ 35 ]. Overall, substitution of wheat distiller grain for part of concentrate or roughage in dairy cow diets improves milk production as a result of increase of feed consumption without negatively impacting milk fat.

Storage Methods for Ethanol Co-Products - Mixing With Forages

In contrast, feeding wheat distiller grain to partly replace roughage may reduce milk fat content due to reduction of chewing activity and rumen pH. Thus, dairy producers and nutritionists formulate dairy rations to ensure cow chewing time is sufficient to maintain rumen pH which is linked to maintaining milk fat concentrations [ 34 ]. Abundant distiller grain from ethanol production can be used as alternatives to feed grains and other premium ingredients in sheep feeding to reduce feeding costs for sheep farmers.

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However, most of the studies with feeding wheat distiller grain are with cattle or pigs. With our best knowledge, only one study was conducted using growing lambs fed diets containing wheat distiller grain. McKeown et al. Inclusion of wheat distiller grain in growing or finishing lamb diets is likely a viable feeding management since wheat distiller grain can entirely replace protein supplement to meet protein requirement of growing lambs, and simultaneously used as energy and fibre source because of its high contents of protein, energy and fibre.

Ammonia emitted from animal feeding operations is a major air and water pollutant contributing to eutrophication, soil acidity, aerosol formation, and impaired visibility. Although ammonia is not a greenhouse gas, it may indirectly contribute to agricultural emissions of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of approximately times that of CO 2.

During last decade, dramatic increase of high-protein by-products feeding in livestock animals as a result of increased production of corn and wheat distiller grain. Consequently, inclusion of the distiller grain in cattle diets as protein and energy source has been becoming a common practice in cattle production because of high nutritional value. With the increased use of high protein distiller grain in cattle diets, the potential for increased manure nitrogen is a concern.

As a result, the excess nitrogen is excreted in manure feces, urine and bedding leading to greater NH 3 and N 2 O emissions. Thus, from an environmental point, it is important to match dietary protein supplies as closely as possible to rumen microbial and animal needs. However, when the distiller grain is included at high proportion as energy source in cattle diets, high nitrogen excretion is not avoidable, a factor that needs to be considered for manure management. Wheat distiller grain also contains high concentrations of phosphorus and sulphur [ 11 ]. The resulting manure from cattle fed wheat distiller grain, with high phosphorus content, can be beneficial for crop production, but it may also have a negative environmental impact due to increased phosphorus accumulation in crop lands surrounding feedlots [ 39 ].

Environmental concerns regarding phosphorus excretion are primarily associated with pollution of surface water. Dietary phosphorus intake was positively associated with the amount of phosphorus excreted in livestock manure [ 40 ]. Concentration of sulphur in wheat distiller grain was reported to range from 3. The high sulphur in distiller grain is mostly from chemicals added during the ethanol fermentation to control pH and for cleanup. Excreted sulphur can contribute to H 2 S emissions from livestock manure [ 41 ].

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Thus, potential environmental implications of liquid runoff from the feedlot surface and potential phosphorus contamination of surface water need to be considered. In addition, the increased intake and urinary excretion of sulphur as a result of increased inclusion of distiller grain in feedlot diets [ 38 ] may increase ammonia and H 2 S emissions from the feedlot, in particular when combined with increased nitrogen excretion.

Therefore, cattle producers that replace grains or forages with distiller grain need to take appropriate steps to develop nutrient management programs in order to minimize nutrient loss to the environment and to maximize use of both nitrogen and phosphorus. Increase of biofuel ethanol production has resulted in an increase of the production of wheat-based distiller grain, and thus increases in the use of distiller grains in the diets of livestock animals.

The chemical composition of wheat distiller grain can vary considerably from plant to plant or between batches within plant depending on the type of wheat fermented and technology of fermentation used in ethanol plants. Direct nutrient analysis of each lot of wheat distiller grain is recommended if such information is not provided to ensure accurate ration formulation for precisely feeding ruminant animals. Wheat distiller grain contains higher protein, fibre, fat and minerals but very lower starch than the original grain.

Protein quality in wheat distiller grain is high with moderate rumen degradability, and its fibre is highly digestible in the rumen. Therefore, wheat distiller grain can be used as good protein and energy source in ruminant diets.

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Wheat distiller grain is commonly fed in beef and dairy cattle feeding as either a protein or energy source or both. Wheat distiller grain can also be used as fibre source to partly replace roughage in cattle diets, whereas its effectiveness of stimulating chewing activity and maintaining rumen pH status is limited. Thus, feeding wheat distiller grain in place of roughage may increase the risk of rumen acidosis especially if it is used to replace all of the forage in beef cattle diets.

With the mandatory inclusion of renewable fuels in gasoline, distiller grain is certain to continue to be an important feed source for ruminants. Development of rapid analysis procedures such as near-infrared spectroscopy may allow this ingredient to be formulated into diets with greater accuracy. The wheat distiller grain is high in nitrogen and phosphorus, and high inclusion in cattle diets, especially when it is used as energy source in cattle diets may exceed the protein requirement, thus increase the manure nitrogen excretion, a factor that needs to be considered for manure management.

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Downloaded: Abstract Wheat grain is commonly used to produce ethanol in Canada and Europe. Keywords wheat grain distiller grain nutrient content ruminants dairy and beef cattle digestibility feed efficiency growth performance milk production manure management. Introduction Traditionally, wheat grain is primarily used for human food consumption; the milling of wheat produces flour for human use and appreciable quantities of by-products for animal feeds.