PDF Introduction to the Practice of Fishery Science, Revised Edition: Revised Edition

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Revised and updated, Royce's Introduction to the Practice of Fishery Science is a classic text. With a new chapter on aquaculture, this book.
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Yet the sheer number of fish killed for food and bred for pet stores dwarfs the corresponding numbers of mammals, birds, and reptiles. Annually, about 70 billion land animals are killed for food around the world. That number includes chickens, other poultry, and all forms of livestock. In contrast, an estimated 10 to billion farmed fish are killed globally every year, and about another one to three trillion fish are caught from the wild.

The number of fish killed each year far exceeds the number of people who have ever existed on Earth. Can we do that more humanely? Should we? Probably, yes. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom and Norway, fish farms have largely adopted humane slaughter methods.

Instead of suffocating fish in air—the easiest and historically the most common practice—or freezing them to death in ice water, or poisoning them with carbon dioxide, they render fish unconscious with either a quick blow to the head or strong electrical currents, then pierce their brains or bleed them out. In Norway, Hanne Digre and her colleagues at the research organization SINTEF have brought these techniques onto commercial fishing vessels on a trial basis to investigate whether humane slaughter is feasible out at sea. In a series of experiments, Digre and her colleagues tested different open-sea slaughter methods on a variety of species.

They found that cod and haddock stored in dry bins on ships after harvest remained conscious for at least two hours.

Fisheries management

An electric shock delivered immediately after bringing fish onto a ship could knock them unconscious, but only if the current was strong enough. If the electric shock was too weak, the fish were merely immobilized. Some species, such as saithe, tended to break their spines and bleed internally when shocked; others, such as cod, struggled much less. Some fish regained consciousness about 10 minutes after being stunned, so the researchers recommend cutting their throats within 30 seconds of an electric shock.

In the United States, two brothers are pioneering a new kind of humane fishing. The meter boat, which can carry about tonnes and a crew of 26, specializes in harvesting Pacific cod from the Bering Sea.


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The crew works within a temperature-controlled room in the middle of the boat, which houses a moon pool—a hole through which they haul up fish one at a time. This sanctuary protects the crew from the elements and gives them much more control over the act of fishing than they would have on an ordinary vessel. Within seconds of bringing a fish to the surface, the crew moves it to a stun table that renders the animal unconscious with about 10 volts of direct current.

The fish are then bled. The Burns brothers were initially inspired by groundbreaking research on humane slaughter facilities for livestock conducted by Colorado State University animal science professor and internationally renowned autism spokesperson Temple Grandin. Michael recalls. Michael thinks his new ship is one of perhaps two vessels in the world to consistently use electrical stunning on wild-caught fish.

The fact that the fish are humanely harvested has not been a big draw for their main buyers, Michael says, but he expects that will change. He and his team have been speaking with various animal welfare organizations to develop new standards and certifications for humanely caught wild fish.

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Meanwhile, the vast majority of the trillions of fish slaughtered annually are killed in ways that likely cause them immense pain. The truth is that even the adoption of humane slaughter methods in more progressive countries has not been entirely or even primarily motivated by ethics. Rather, such changes are driven by profit.

Studies have shown that reducing stress in farmed and caught fish, killing them swiftly and efficiently with minimal struggle, improves the quality of the meat that eventually makes it to market. The flesh of fish killed humanely is often smoother and less blemished. There was no attempt to save them or house them whatsoever. I was shocked by that at that age, and I still see that kind of callous disregard for fish in people today in all sorts of contexts. They move restlessly, noiselessly—leglessly pacing from one side of their tanks to another.

Some hang in the water, heads tilted up, as though caught on an invisible line. A glint of scales draws my attention; an unexpected swatch of color. I try to look one in the eye—a depthless disc of obsidian.

Introduction to the Practice of Fishery Science : William F. Royce :

Its mouth moves so mechanically, like a sliding door stuck in a loop. I look at these fish, I enjoy looking at them, I do not wish them any harm; yet I almost never wonder what they are thinking or feeling. Fish are our direct evolutionary ancestors.


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They are the original vertebrates, the scaly, stubby-limbed pioneers who crawled still wet from the sea and colonized the land. So many gulfs separate us now: geographical, anatomical, psychological. We can understand, rationally, the overwhelming evidence for fish sentience. But the facts are not enough. Genuinely pitying a fish seems to require an Olympian feat of empathy.


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Perhaps, though, our typical interactions with fish—the placid pet in a glass puddle, or the garnished filet on a plate—are too circumscribed to reveal a capacity for suffering. You can find videos online. Learn 7th grade semester exam review with free interactive flashcards. Analyze results 6. End-of-Course Tests, which students first encounter in grade 9, take the place of End-of-Grade Tests, which are administered in grades 3 through 8. High School. Your child should be able to complete the tests for this Christian homeschool curriculum on his own as long as he understands the activity directions.

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Aquaculture

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